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BourgasThe city of Bourgas is located by the side of the Bourgas Bay – the largest on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. North, west and south it is encircled by the lakes: Atanassovsko, Bourgasko, and Mandrensko. A regional centre, the city of Bourgas is located 134 km south of Varna and 385 km from Sofia. It is the main sea port of South Bulgaria and of Sofia, the centre of Black Sea and ocean fishing, a city of an up-to-date international airport, a university and a great number of cultural institutions. As a resort it is known for its agreeable climate, warm sea and the dark colour of the sands, which have curative power. The attractive resort complexes, the long and sunny summer and the cool evenings have turned Bourgas into a romantic destination of summertime holidays. The city is the heir of several settlements, which came into being in the vicinities of present-day Bourgas. One of them was the Roman city of Deultum, founded in the 1st century A.D. by Emperor Vespasian as a military colony of veterans and later called Debelt (remains of Deultum-Debelt are discernible to this day by the village of Debelt, whose territory has been declared an archaeological reserve). Settlements were also mentioned like Castracion, Rococastron, Aqua Calidae (the present-day Bourgas Mineral Baths), and the Scaphida fortress. South of the present-day city Pirgus (tower), a fortified settlement, existed during the Middle Ages. For the first time the town was mentioned by the name of Pirgus (Burgus) in a Byzantine poem from 1306. It came into being at its present-day site probably during the 17th century and has been known by the name of Bourgas since 1676. Landmarks. The Marine Parkof Bourgas is scenically located on the high coast overlooking the central city beach. The citizens and guests of Bourgas take walks amidst flower lanes and the freshness of trees and bushes, children play, and youth groups and orchestras give improvised concerts right onto the grass or in the summertime theatre, where the International Folk Song and Dance Festival is held every year. Sculptures, presenting outstanding personalities, have been placed in the park. Cozy pubs, cafes and restaurants facing the sea service visitors of all age groups. There is a casino, children’s playgrounds and a small zoo there. The city has a northern beach, as well, nearby the Izgrev residential district, in close proximity to the salterns. Numerous visitors go to the Archaeological Museum, the Natural Sciences Museum, the Art Gallery, the Petya Doubarova House Museum, etc. Among the landmarks of the city are the churches of the Holy Virgin, of St Ivan Rilski [St John of Rila] and of St St Cyril and Methodius, standing out by their architecture; the Armenian Church, the Monument to the Liberators, built in commemoration of those who perished in the Russo-Turkish War of Liberation (1877-1878), etc. The Atanassovsko Firth Lake is north of Bourgas. It is about 10 km long and up to 1 m deep. Situated on part of it is the Atanassovsko Lake supportive reserve, established for the preservation of the specific lake vegetation and the diversity of migratory birds and birds spending the winter in the region. The lake is also used for the extraction of salt. The Bourgas Lake and Firthis west of Bourgas. By its area of 27.56 sq km it is the largest lake in Bulgaria. Pelicans, ibises, and herons make their nests in its western coastline in the midst of the lush swamp vegetation, while the lake itself has been stocked with fish. The region provides fine opportunities for short holidays. The Mandrensko Firth Lakeis south of Bourgas. The natural canal extends between the lake and the Bourgas Bay passing over which along a bridge is the road from Bourgas to Sozopol. The Podaprotected locality has been defined as an important ornithological site of international significance. Bourgas is the biggest city in Southeast Bulgaria. It is situated by the Bourgas Bay of The Black Sea at an altitude of 17 meters. It is built on four terraces with height of 2-3 meters. That is the city with no rivers at all in it. The lakes which surround it collect the waters of Aytoska River, Rusokastrenska River, Sredetska River and Fakiyska River. It is the main sea port for South Bulgaria, a base of Black Sea and Ocean fishery, a city with modern international airport, universities and many cultural institutions. As a resort it is famous with a pleasant climate, warm sea and the dark colour of its sands, which have a healing effect. The attractive resort complexes, the continuous, sunny summer and cool nights have turned Bourgas into a romantic place for summer holidays. The town is an heir to a few settlements, occurred in the surroundings of the city itself today. One of them is Deultum, founded in the 1st century by Emperor Vespasian as an army colony of veterans and is called later Debelt ( till now you can see there the ruins of Deultum- Debelt, by the village of Debelt- this territory is pronounced an archeological reserve). There are mentioned the settlements Kastritsion, Rosokastron, Aqua caliade (the nowadays Bourgas mineral baths), the fortress Skafida. South from the today`s city through the Middle Ages there existed also the fortified settlement Pirgos (tower). For a first time the name Pirgos ( Burgus) is mentioned in the Byzantine poem from 1306. At its today`s place probably it appeared in the 17th century. It is known with the name Bourgas since 1676. Museums The Historical Museum possesses a rich collection of exponents from the ancient colonies who used to live on the coast of the Black Sea. There are exponents showing its new history as well, and photographs of famous people from the Renaissance period. There are exhibited works of art of foreign and Bulgarian artists in the Art Gallery. The ethnographic museum has an interesting collection of traditional mummers’ masks , folklore costumes and objects from the everyday life of the Bulgarians. In the Nature Scientific museum there are exponents , representing the geological characteristics of the land, as well as the flora and the fauna of the region. Sightseeing There is a beautiful Sea garden in Bourgas, full of many colourful flower beds, trees and sculptures. Very attractive is the “St.St. Cyril and Methodius “ cathedral with its frescoes and wooden altar. Other places of interest are the Armenian Church, the Catholic Cathedral, the “ Saint Virgin Mary” church and the “St. Ivan Rilski” church. Surrounded by salt – cellars and sanatoriums and the town of Pomorie, the Atanasovskoto Lake is also north of the city. It is a home of many marsh-land and sea birds, which migrate from Gibraltar and Bosphora . In the Bourgas Lake there are the nests of many pelicans, ibis birds and herons. 10 km south from Bourgas is the Mandrenskoto Lake, which is an important ornithological reserve. St. Anastasia isle is situated 3 sea miles from the city , where there is reserved an old church. A very interesting part of the Bourgas sights are the salt-cellars, which border with the Bourgas Lake but some even reach up to the Atanasovskoto Lake. The Bourgas Mineral Baths are one of the most ancient balneological resorts , situated among well forested area, among vine yards and orchards 15 km north-west from Bourgas with altitude of 31 meters. There are the remains of an ancient Roman settlement. The village of Kraimorie is south from Bourgas on the way to the old fortress of Pirgos. 15 km away from the city is located Otmanli Park, close to cape Chokaliya.

 

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